The Earth surface and water reservoirs temperature
is calculated in 4th and 5th infrared channels AVHRR. The intensity if these channels is proportionate to the temperature value. The use of those two of channels lets partly eliminate the atmospheric dispersion, and hence, to increase the accuracy of temperature assessments.
Earth Surface Temperature
Earth surface temperature in Western and Central Ukraine on 23 December 1999
(From the map acquired it can be seen that the Kachovsky water reservoir is covered with ice in the upper part and in the narrow costal area where the temperature values are negative. In the region near the city of Energodar in the location of cooling pond of Zaporizka nuclear plant, the domain of abnormal high temperature is clearly seen.
Sea Surface Temperature
Black and Azov sea surface temperature on 14 March 2000
Snow cover maps production. Multi-channel type of AVHRR makes it possible not only to identify the areas covered with snow and clouds, but also to differentiate between snow and clouds. To identify clouds, data of 3rd, 4th and 5th AVHRR channels are used. To identify snow and clouds, data of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th channels are necessary. The difference in results of these two algorithms determines the snow distribution area.
Snow Cover Map
Snow cover map in the Southern and Central Ukraine as of 11 February 2000.
AVHRR data applications provides the possibility to maintain fire monitoring on the territory of Ukraine and neighbor states. The techniques of fire detection are based on the use of radiation temperatures in the infrared spectrum band (3rd, 4th, 5th AVHRR- channels). Smoke plume caused by the fire are well seen in the visible and near infrared bands (accordingly, 1st and 2nd AVHRR channels).
Below images are placed to illustrate numerous fires registered in Belarus on 12 May 2000. Smoke plume originating from Belarus in the morning reached Kyiv in the evening.